Muneo Kaigo is an assistant professor of Communication and Media in the Graduate School of Humanities and Social Sciences (Modern Cultures and Public Policies) and the College of Comparative Culture at the University of Tsukuba. He is also a member of the Special Project on Comparative Civil Society, State and Culture (University of Tsukuba). He completed his Ph.D. (International Christian University, Tokyo) in 1999. He is a visiting scholar at CITI from 2004-2005, as a research fellow sponsored by the Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology. His research project is "Paths for Digital Inclusion and Dynamics of the Japanese Network Society."