April 26, 2006

Managers' Theories of Subordinates: A Cross-Cultural Examination

This study examines the relationship between managers' perceptions of employee motivation and performance appraisal by surveying managers and employees in three distinct cultural regions.


This study examines the relationship between managers' perceptions of employee motivation and performance appraisal by surveying managers and employees in three distinct cultural regions (North America, Asia, and Latin America), within a single global organization. Employee motivation is categorized as intrinsic (e.g., enjoyment and interest in job) or extrinsic (e.g., pay and benefits) and evaluated from the perspective of managers and employees. Based on surveys of managers and employees at Citigroup, the authors test several hypotheses and examine cross-culturally both managers' perception of whether their employees are primarily motivated by intrinsic or extrinsic incentives, and the role these perceptions play in the appraisal of employee performance.

Read the Research

Sanford DeVoe, Sheena Iyengar

"Managers' Theories of Subordinates: A Cross-Cultural Examination of Manager Perceptions of Motivation and Appraisal of Performance"

View abstract/citation  Download PDF  

Have You Read Columbia Business?

Columbia Business School’s alumni magazine connects alumni with each other and the School; celebrates alumni milestones and accomplishments; and chronicles the impact of Columbia Business School alumni, faculty members, and students on the global business landscape.

Read Columbia Business>