This study examines the relationship between managers' perceptions of employee motivation and performance appraisal by surveying managers and employees in three distinct cultural regions (North America, Asia, and Latin America), within a single global organization. Employee motivation is categorized as intrinsic (e.g., enjoyment and interest in job) or extrinsic (e.g., pay and benefits) and evaluated from the perspective of managers and employees. Based on surveys of managers and employees at Citigroup, the authors test several hypotheses and examine cross-culturally both managers' perception of whether their employees are primarily motivated by intrinsic or extrinsic incentives, and the role these perceptions play in the appraisal of employee performance.
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"Managers' Theories of Subordinates: A Cross-Cultural Examination of Manager Perceptions of Motivation and Appraisal of Performance"