NEW YORK — Wear your lucky Yankees jersey. Hold your breath. Expect nothing less than a World Series win. Certain routines are routine for millions of baseball playoff fans desperate to meet victory. In fact, a new study in the Journal of Consumer Research says fans are so deep in their traditions, they will drop brand loyalty–if it means a win.
The study, written by Gita V. Johar of Columbia Business School and Eric J. Hamerman of Tulane University shows a sports fan will easily switch to a different product if the fan believes the new brand will bring about good luck or eliminate bad luck.
“If someone buys a Snickers bar and subsequently begins to see their team improve, they might attribute that performance to their purchase decision,” Johar said.
During one of the experiments in the study, participants were given Snickers just prior to watching their college compete in a simulated quiz bowl game. Their team started off poorly, but as the score improved, researchers distributed Snickers during simulated refreshment breaks. When the experiment ended — with the game still in progress — the researchers offered subjects a Kit Kat or Snickers.
“You would expect most people to choose Kit Kat since they’ve already had so many Snickers. But about half the time, people chose Snickers.”
The series of experiments show that consumers tend to build associations between their use of a product and the desired performance outcome. Assuming the product will impact the outcome, fans will sacrifice brand loyalty.
The study also shows people know there is no rational support for the superstition; nonetheless, this knowledge won't alter their intended action. In fact, people believe that their superstitious behavior — choosing a less–preferred brand that is associated with a desired outcome for example — works! The experiments show that people predict that their desired outcome is more likely to occur after they use the product previously associated with that outcome.
“It can be stressful when you want your team to win, but can’t do anything about it,” says Johar. “Superstition is one way that people can feel that they gain control over an uncertain situation.”
A case in point is a recent Bud Light commercial that shows the odd ways in which NFL fans root for their teams, with the tag line: “It’s only weird if it doesn't work."
With major league baseball having recently expanded the number of teams that make the playoffs, more fans have hope that their team will be playing in the postseason, and they are incredibly impressionable right now. Johar suggests this insight provides an opportunity for brand marketers to make sure they are associated with the team’s success. For example, firms could sponsor specific actions (such as home runs and victories). Imagine a TV announcer telling viewers after each home run, “Some of our fans must have been drinking Budweiser!”
For fans, it’s important to remember that there are other ways to control the stress of uncertainty besides superstition. One study demonstrated that superstition was less likely to occur after participants completed a self–affirmation exercise. “When you remind yourself of your own personal self–worth,” said Johar, “you are able to directly confront the possibility that your team might lose without resorting to superstition.”
The study, Conditioned Superstition: Desire for Control and Consumer Brand Preferences was authored by Gita V. Johar of Columbia Business School and Eric J. Hamerman of Tulane University. Download the full report.
To learn more about cutting–edge research being performed by Columbia Business School faculty members, please visit www.gsb.columbia.edu.
About Columbia Business School
Led by Dean Glenn Hubbard, the Russell L. Carson Professor of Finance and Economics, Columbia Business School is at the forefront of management education for a rapidly changing world. The school’s cutting–edge curriculum bridges academic theory and practice, equipping students with an entrepreneurial mindset to recognize and capture opportunity in a competitive business environment. Beyond academic rigor and teaching excellence, the school offers programs that are designed to give students practical experience making decisions in real–world environments. The school offers MBA and Executive MBA (EMBA) degrees, as well as non–degree Executive Education programs. For more information, visit www.gsb.columbia.edu.