This paper outlines a financial statement analysis for use in equity valuation. Standard profitability analysis is incorporated, and extended, and is complemented with an analysis of growth. The perspective is one of forecasting payoffs to equities. So financial statement analysis is presented first as a matter of pro forma analysis of the future, with forecasted ratios viewed as building blocks of forecasts of payoffs. The analysis of current financial statements is then seen as a matter of identifying current ratios as predictors of the future ratios that drive equity payoffs. The financial statement analysis is hierarchical, with ratios lower in the ordering identified as finer information about those higher up. To provide historical benchmarks for forecasting, typical values for ratios are documented for the period 1963-1996, along with their cross-sectional variation and correlation. And, again with a view to forecasting, the time series behavior of many of the ratios is also described and their typical "long-run, steady-state" levels are documented.
Nissim, Doron, and Stephen Penman. "Ratio Analysis and Equity Valuation." Working paper, Columbia Business School, 2005.
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