This chapter alerts readers to the fact that fairness actions, even if taken, may not necessarily be perceived as authentic, and that perceived authenticity is essential if justice strategies are to have their typical cooperation-enhancing effects. The authors identify ways for negotiators to enhance their perceived authenticity, many of which require negotiators to have access to "rich" (face-to-face) cues involving nonverbal as well as verbal characteristics; yet, they note the difficulty of achieving perceived authenticity in the 21st century workplace, where employees (including managers) must increasingly (a) interact without access to nonverbal cues that can aid perceptions of sincerity due to employee' increased reliance on virtual (relatively "leaner") communications and (b) interact with culturally diverse others whose "display rules" likely differ from their own, thereby complicating employees' ability to be perceived as authentically fair or to similarly perceive another's authenticity. They identify the richness/leanness of communication media, the cultural diversity of negotiation participants, and negotiators' perceptions of others' authenticity as additional research needs.
Roloff, K., Joel Brockner, and Batia Wiesenfeld. "The role of process fairness authenticity in 21st century negotiations." In The psychology of negotiations in 21st century negotiations, 45-69. New York: Routledge, 2012.
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