Focusing on asset returns governed by a factor structure, the APT is a one-period model, in which preclusion of arbitrage over static portfolios of these assets leads to a linear relation between the expected return and its covariance with the factors. The APT, however, does not preclude arbitrage over dynamic portfolios. Consequently, applying the model to evaluate managed portfolios is contradictory to the no-arbitrage spirit of the model. An empirical test of the APT entails a procedure to identify features of the underlying factor structure rather than merely a collection of meanvariance efficient factor portfolios that satisfies the linear relation.
Huberman, Gur, and Zhenyu Wang. "Arbitrage Pricing Theory." In New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics. 2nd ed. Ed. Larry Blume and Steven Durlauf. England: Palgrave Macmillan, August 2005.
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