This work presents a general modeling technique for following the evolution of the stress field during the manufacturing of multilevel structures. This technique combines the finite element method with a modeling strategy that uses artificial nodes to simulate material interfaces. It can be applied to both linear and nonlinear structures. The main advantage of this approach is that it allows one to account for all topological and geometric changes during the manufacturing process, as well as the residual stresses introduced at each stage. Its implementation is very straightforward since it is compatible with current finite element technology and most commercial codes. The usefulness of this technique is illustrated with an example concerning an encapsulated copper line.
Cifuentes, Arturo, and I.A. Shareef. "Modeling of Multilevel Structures: A General Method for Analyzing Stress Evolution During Processing." IEEE Transactions on Semiconductor Manufacturing 5, no. 2 (May 1992): 128-137.
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