To understand why e-mail negotiations break down, we investigated two distinct elements of negotiators' relationships with each other: shared membership in a social group and mutual self-disclosure. In an experiment, some participants negotiated with a member of an outgroup (a student at a competitor university), whereas others negotiated with a member of an ingroup (a student at the same university). In addition, some negotiators exchanged personal information with their counterparts, whereas others did not. When neither common ingroup status nor a personalized relationship existed between negotiators, negotiations were more likely to end in impasse. These results are attributable to the positive influence of mutual self-disclosure and common group membership on negotiation processes and rapport between negotiators.
Moore, D., T. Kurtzberg, L. Thompson, and Michael Morris. "Long and short routes to success in electronically mediated negotiations: Group affiliations and good vibrations." Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 77, no. 1 (January 1999): 22-43.
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