The authors propose that cultural frame shifting — shifting between two culturally based interpretative lenses in response to cultural cues — is moderated by perceived compatibility (vs. opposition) between the two cultural orientations, or bicultural identity integration (BII). Three studies found that Chinese American biculturals who perceived their cultural identities as compatible (high BII) responded in culturally congruent ways to cultural cues: They made more external attributions (a characteristically Asian behavior) after being exposed to Chinese primes and more internal attributions (a characteristically Western behavior) after being exposed to American primes. However, Chinese American biculturals who perceived their cultural identities as oppositional (low BII) exhibited a reverse priming effect. This trend was not apparent for noncultural primes. The results show that individual differences in bicultural identity affect how cultural knowledge is used to interpret social events.
Benet-Martinez, Veronica, J. Leu, F. Lee, and Michael Morris. "Negotiating biculturalism: Cultural frame-switching in biculturals with oppositional vs. compatible cultural identities." Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 33, no. 5 (2002): 492-516.
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