This article considers the social and psychological functions that norm-based thinking and behavior provide for the individual and the collectivity. We differentiate between two types of reference groups that provide norms: peer groups versus aspirational groups. We integrate functionalist accounts by distinguishing the functions served by the norms of different reference groups, different degrees of norm moralization, and different directions of responses to norm activation.
Morris, Michael, and Zhi Liu. "Psychological functions of subjective norms: Reference groups, moralization, adherence, and defiance." Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 46, no. 10 (2015): 1279-1287.
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