This article evaluates the role of rate of return (ROE) in assessing cross-sectional differences in prices and price changes of ROE. Accounting ROE is traditionally regarded as the major summary number in financial statement analysis. Findings of the study indicate that ROE is best interpreted as a profitability measure and not as a risk measure and observed ROE indicates future profitability and thus distinguishes market-to-book ratios. The comparison of earnings to book values in the ROE calculation provides information about how earnings project to future earnings.
Penman, Stephen. "An Evaluation of Accounting Rate-of-Return." Journal of Accounting, Auditing and Finance 6, no. 2 (Spring 1991): 233-255.
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