An examination of research studies that assume the existence of the sleeper effect concept has revealed surprising results: this effect may be observed only under certain restrictive design conditions-with subsets of the population divided on the basis of personality characteristics.
Capon, Noel, and James Hulbert. "The Sleeper Effect: An Awakening." Public Opinion Quarterly 37, no. 3 (Fall 1973): 333-58.
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