This paper attempts to find characteristics of product categories, brands, and ad copy that lead to either increased or decreased effectiveness of advertising spending on ad awareness, brand awareness, or purchase intentions, as measured through tracking data. Using a meta-analysis of such data for frequently purchased packaged goods, we find that advertising spending has a greater effect on awareness for less-visible brands in growing product categories and a greater effect on purchase intentions when the ad features a new strategy or new copy or new benefits; when the brand has significant trade promotion support; when the ad copy is not "soft sell"; and when the brand is not already a "declining brand." These results are generally consistent with earlier field studies examining the effects of advertising weight on sales.
Batra, Rajeev, Donald Lehmann, Joanne Burke, and Jae H. Pae. "When Does Advertising Have an Impact? A Study of Tracking Data." Journal of Advertising Research 35, no. 5 (September 1995): 19-32.
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