This paper argues that it is important to include the other party's payoff in a competitor's utility (satisfaction) function. Examples of the impact are provided as well as implications for multi-stage games (competitions). A sample of 200 provides empirical support for the critical role other party results play in satisfaction, in particular the importance of relative payoffs. Several implications emerge, including a parsimonious explanation for the exponential pattern of shares in mature markets.
Lehmann, Donald. "The Impact of Altruism and Envy of Competitive Behavior and Satisfaction." International Journal of Research in Marketing 18, no. 1 (June 2001): 5-17.
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