Marketers are making increasing use of very brief messages that mention just a brand name or a brand name with a short headline, as in event sponsorship and program endorsements. There has been debate over the effectiveness of these "advertising fragments." This paper introduces an approach for controlled testing of the effects of advertising fragments. Using a reaction-time based procedure, we show that a key effect of advertising fragments is to revive established brand associations, even though these associations are not explicitly communicated. This reactivation occurs not only when these names receive focal attention, but also when they receive nonfocal attention.
Pham, Michel Tuan, and Marc Vanhuele. "Analyzing the Memory Impact of Advertising Fragments." Marketing Letters 8, no. 4 (October 1997): 407-17.
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